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A slot antenna consists of a frequencies instead of line antennas when greater control of the radiation pattern is required. Slot antennas are widely used. Tutorial A Practical Guide to the Design of Microstrip Antenna Arrays Roger of radiation resistance comes about requires Four-slot Antenna. A loop antenna is a radio Increasing that phase difference by increasing the size of the loop has a large impact in increasing the radiation resistance and the.

## A Practical Guide to the Design of Microstrip Antenna Arrays

Folded dipoles, like folded monopoles, are another example of a system where radiation resistance can have two significantly different values, depending on which definition is used. Now let's misuse the same efficiency formula, like Orr did in his Radio Handbook and others do in various articles. Shunting an inductor with capacitance reduces the number of turns required, but it increases circulating currents. Thus the signal to noise ratio of the received signal will not be adversely affected by low efficiency as long as the loop is not excessively small. A slot antenna consists of a metal surface, usually a flat plate, with one or more holes or slots cut out. As a result, some of the practical aspects of microstrip array design have been grouped together in this article based on his experience.

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## Slot antenna

Slot antennas are used typically at frequencies between MHz and 24 GHz. The slot antenna is popular because they can be cut out of whatever surface they are to be mounted on, and have radiation patterns that are roughly omnidirectional similar to a linear wire antenna, as we'll see.

The polarization of the slot antenna is linear. The slot size, shape and what is behind it the cavity offer design variables that can be used to tune performance.

Consider an infinite conducting sheet, with a rectangular slot cut out of dimensions a and b , as shown in Figure 1. If we can excite some reasonable fields in the slot often called the aperture , we have a slot antenna. Rectangular Slot antenna with dimensions a and b. To gain an intuition about slot antennas, first we'll learn Babinet's principle put into antenna terms by H.

This principle relates the radiated fields and impedance of an aperture or slot antenna to that of the field of its dual antenna. The dual of a slot antenna would be if the conductive material and air were interchanged - that is, the slot antenna became a metal slab in space. An example of dual antennas is shown in Figure 2: Dual antennas - left the slot antenna, right the dipole antenna. Note that a voltage source is applied across the short end of the slot antenna. This induces an E-field distribution within the slot, and currents that travel around the slot perimeter, both contributed to radiation.

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The steps outlined above maximize radiation resistance and minimize loss. Let's look at the interaction between radiation resistance and loss resistance. Radiation resistance is both the most useful and the least useful antenna-related term. Radiation resistance can easily be misused and rendered useless.

This is because radiation resistance has multiple poorly-defined meanings. When a term has several nebulous meanings or uses, it is only natural that misuse or mixing of terms appear. Lack of a firm, single, well-accepted, definition allows the term "radiation resistance" to slip from one definition into another.

This often results in well-intentioned, but totally erroneous conclusions, that seem to follow accurate, logical, thought! The "correct" uses are:. The resistive part of an antenna's feedpoint impedance that is created solely by radiation from the antenna The total power radiated in all directions divided by the square of maximum net or effective current causing the radiation Neither of the above definitions include loss resistances of any type!

The moment loss resistance is included, we have a third commonly-used but totally useless definition. This definition, which includes losses, could be considered "incorrect" because it includes resistances that have nothing to do with radiation. The misused, or nearly useless, definition is:. The simple real or resistive part of an antenna's feedpoint impedance, wherever that feedpoint is in relationship to the radiating current maximum.

The correct name for number 3's "radiation resistance" is actually the antenna feedpoint resistance. It is not radiation resistance at all! Of the above good or useful definitions, the first definition is most commonly abused through mistake. The second definition is an IRE definition albeit a good one that never caught on. In every case, the second good definition, which is also the least commonly used, provides the most direct and useful answer.

## Slot vs socket

Computer bus interfaces provided through the M. It is up to the manufacturer of the M. Buses exposed through the M. As a result, M. There are three options available for the logical device interfaces and command sets used for interfacing with M. As the result of the M. Initial line-up of the commercially available M. Components may be mounted on either side of the module, with the actual module type limiting how thick the components can be; the maximum allowable thickness of components is 1.

Different host-side connectors are used for single- and double-sided M. PCB of an M. Similar keying applies to M. Various types of M. The "HH" part specifies, in an encoded form, whether a module is single- or double-sided, and the maximum allowed thickness of mounted components; possible values are listed in the right table above. Module keying is specified by the "K-K" part, in an encoded form using the key IDs from the left table above; it can also be specified as "K" only, if a module has only one keying notch.

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