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A Tobin tax, suggested by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences Laureate economist James Tobin, was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another. A selection of mathematical and scientific questions, with definitive answers presented by Dr. Gérard P. Michon (mathematics, physics, etc.). A list of every Word of the Year selection released by INFOSCIPHI.INFO INFOSCIPHI.INFO's first Word of the Year was chosen in
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In the past two years, has there been enough change? On a bond with a maturity of five years or more, the tax was 0. However, the proposal was rejected by the European Commission. The most common variations on Tobin's idea are a general currency transaction tax , a more general financial transaction tax and the most general Robin Hood tax on transactions only richer investors can afford to engage in. Our choice for Word of the Year is as much about what is visible as it is about what is not. Retrieved 5 February
A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose. The concept has been most commonly associated with the financial sector ; it is not usually considered to include consumption taxes paid by consumers.
A transaction tax is not a levy on financial institutions per se; rather, it is charged only on the specific transactions that are designated as taxable. So if an institution never carries out the taxable transaction, then it will never be subject to the transaction tax. This clarification is important in discussions about using a financial transaction tax as a tool to selectively discourage excessive speculation without discouraging any other activity as John Maynard Keynes originally envisioned it in There are several types of financial transaction taxes.
Each has its own purpose. Some have been implemented, while some are only proposals. Concepts are found in various organizations and regions around the world.
Some are domestic and meant to be used within one nation; whereas some are multinational. The year saw an early implementation of a financial transaction tax in the form of a stamp duty at the London Stock Exchange. The tax was payable by the buyer of shares for the official stamp on the legal document needed to formalize the purchase. As of [update] , it is the oldest tax still in existence in Great Britain. Instead of a fixed tax amount per transaction, the tax was in the amount of 0.
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A Tobin tax , suggested by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences Laureate economist James Tobin , was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another. Tobin's original tax was intended to put a penalty on short-term financial round-trip excursions into another currency. By the late s, however, the term Tobin tax was being incorrectly used to describe all forms of short term transaction taxation, whether across currencies or not — another term for these broader tax schemes is Robin Hood tax due to tax revenues from the presumably richer speculator funding general revenue of whom the primary beneficiaries are poorer.
More exact terms however apply to different scopes of tax. One non-tax regulatory equivalent of Tobin's very narrow original tax is to require "non-interest bearing deposit requirements on all open foreign exchange positions. However, they would not raise funds for other purposes, so are not a tax. Tobin suggested his currency transaction tax in in his Janeway Lectures at Princeton , shortly after the Bretton Woods system of monetary management ended in Then, on August 15, , United States President Richard Nixon announced that the United States dollar would no longer be convertible to gold , effectively ending the system.
This action created the situation whereby the U. In that context, Tobin suggested a new system for international currency stability, and proposed that such a system include an international charge on foreign-exchange transactions. In , in another context, just after "the nineties' crises in Mexico, Southeast Asia and Russia,"  which included the economic crisis in Mexico , the Asian Financial Crisis , and the Russian financial crisis , Tobin summarized his idea:.
The tax on foreign exchange transactions was devised to cushion exchange rate fluctuations. The idea is very simple: This dissuades speculators as many investors invest their money in foreign exchange on a very short-term basis.
If this money is suddenly withdrawn, countries have to drastically increase interest rates for their currency to still be attractive. But high interest is often disastrous for a national economy, as the nineties' crises in Mexico, Southeast Asia and Russia have proven. My tax would return some margin of manoeuvre to issuing banks in small countries and would be a measure of opposition to the dictate of the financial markets.
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